11 Jul 2015

The Four Great Imams Of Fiqh

Imam Abu Hanifa:
The comprehension of the laws and implicit rules of Islam is something that has always been developing all through Islamic history. The main eras of Muslims after the Prophet ﷺ had a much less demanding time understanding what is normal out of them as Muslims in light of the fact that they had admittance to the Sahaba, the colleagues of the Prophet ﷺ. As history advanced, on the other hand, a need emerged to classify Islamic laws into sorted out and simple to get to law codes.
The primary individual who attempted this amazing errand was the considerable researcher Imam Abu Hanifa. Through his endeavors, the first school of fiqh (Islamic statute), the Hanafi school, created. Today, the Hanafi school is the biggest and most powerful among the four schools (madhabs) of fiqh.

Early Life and Instruction
Abu Hanifa's given name was Nu'man ibn Thabit. He was conceived in 699 in the Iraqi city of Kufa, to a group of Persian cause. His dad, Thabit, was a fruitful specialist in Kufa and consequently the youthful Abu Hanifa proposed to emulate his dad's example. Living under the abusive rule of the legislative head of Iraq, al-Hajjaj ibn Yusuf, Abu Hanifa stayed concentrated on running the family silk-production business and by and large kept away from grant. With the passing of al-Hajjaj in 713 came the evacuation of abusive arrangements in regards to researchers, and Islamic grant took off in Kufa, particularly amid the rule of Umar ibn Abd al-Aziz (717-720).
In this way, by his young years, Abu Hanifa started to concentrate on under a percentage of the inhabitant researchers of Kufa. He even got the chance to meet somewhere around eight and ten mates of Prophet Muhammad ﷺ, among them Anas ibn Malik, Sahl ibn Sa'd, and Jabir ibn Abdullah. Subsequent to gaining from a percentage of the best researchers of Kufa, he went ahead to study in Makkah and Madinah under various educators, specifically Ata ibn Abu Rabah, who was known as one of the best researchers of Makkah at the time.
He soon turned into a specialist in the sciences of fiqh (law), tafsir (interpretation of the Quran), and kalam (looking for philosophical information through civil argument and reason). Truth be told, the idea of utilizing verbal confrontation and rationale turned into a foundation of his strategy for looking for Islamic laws.
Imam Abu Hanifa was a firm adherent that a code of laws can't stay static for a really long time, at the danger of no more addressing the needs of the individuals. Along these lines he pushed deciphering the wellsprings of Islamic law (usul al-fiqh) in light of the needs of the individuals at the time. This dynamic type of legalism did not supersede the Quran and Sunnah (expressions and doings of the Prophet ﷺ), obviously. Rather, he advanced the utilization of the Quran and Sunnah to infer laws that tended to the issues that individuals managed around then.
A noteworthy part of his strategy was the utilization of open deliberation to determine decisions. He would generally represent a lawful issue to a gathering of around 40 of his understudies, and test them to concoct a decision in view of the Quran and Sunnah. Understudies would at first endeavor to discover the arrangement in the Quran, on the off chance that it was not plainly replied in the Quran, they would swing to the Sunnah, and in the event that it was not there, they would utilize motivation to locate a legitimate arrangement.
Abu Hanifa construct this technique with respect to the illustration when Prophet Muhammad ﷺ sent Mu'adh ibn Jabal to Yemen and asked him how he will resolve issues utilizing Islamic law. Mu'adh reacted that he would investigate the Quran, then the Sunnah, and on the off chance that he doesn't locate an immediate arrangement there, he would utilize his best judgment, an answer that Muhammad ﷺ was satisfied with.
Utilizing such a procedure for classifying fiqh, the Hanafi madhab (school of law) was in this way established, taking into account the decisions of Imam Abu Hanifa, and his noticeable understudies, Abu Yusuf, Muhammad al-Shaybani, and Zuffar.
Various times all through his later life, Abu Hanifa was offered a position as a boss judge in the city of Kufa. He reliably rejected such arrangements and along these lines discovered himself consistently detained by both the Umayyad and later, the Abbasid powers. He passed on in the year 767 while in jail.
A masjid was implicit his honor in Baghdad years after the fact, and was remodeled in the Footrest period by the momentous planner Mimar Sinan.
His school of law turned out to be exceptionally well known in the Muslim world not long after his passing. As the authority madhab of the Abbasid, Mughal, and Footrest Realms, his school turned out to be exceptionally persuasive all through the Muslim world. Today, it is extremely well known in Turkey, Syria, Iraq, the Balkans, Egypt, and the Indian Subcontinent.
Imam Malik:
The gathering and codification of Islamic law has verifiably been a standout amongst the most vital, and testing, assignments that the Muslim group has attempted in 1400 years of history. To be viewed as a faqih (a specialist in Islamic law – fiqh), one must have dominance of the Quran, the maxims of Prophet Muhammad ﷺ, different wellsprings of law, and in addition different subjects, for example, punctuation and history.
One of the titans of Islamic law was the eighth century researcher of Madinah, Malik ibn Anas. During a period when the Muslim group urgently required the sciences of fiqh and hadith (colloquialisms and doings of Prophet Muhammad ﷺ) to be composed, Imam Malik rose to the event. His legacy is show in his proceeded with impact all through the Muslim world, both through his own particular works and the works of those he helped guide on a way of grant and commitment to Islam.
Early Life and Training
Imam Malik was conceived in 711 in the city of Madinah, 79 years after the passing of Prophet Muhammad ﷺ in that same city. His family was initially from Yemen, however his granddad had moved to Madinah amid the rule of Umar ibn al-Khattab. Both his dad and granddad had concentrated on religious sciences under the Associates of the Prophet who still lived in Madinah, and consequently youthful Malik was brought up in a situation that was in view of Islamic grant, gaining from his dad and uncle.
Imam Malik's uncle, Nafi', was a famous researcher in his own particular right, and described hadith from Aisha, Abu Hurairah, and Abdullah ibn Umar, all buddies who are noted for their tremendous information of hadith. In spite of the fact that the political focus of the Muslim world moved far from Madinah amid the caliphate of Ali in the 650s, it remained the scholarly capital of Islam. In this capital of Islamic information, Imam Malik aced the sciences of hadith, tafsir (translation of the Quran), and fiqh.
The Researcher of Madinah
After a colossal measure of study that stretched out into his 20s and 30s, Imam Malik got to be known as the most learned man in Madinah at his time. He turned into an educator, drawing in an enormous number of understudies to addresses, which he held in the mosque of the Prophet ﷺ. He used to sit on the platform of the mosque with the Quran in one hand and a gathering of hadith in the other and offer lawful decisions and assessments in light of those two sources.
Understudies ran to his addresses from all sides of the Muslim world. Among his more remarkable understudies were Abu Yusuf, Muhammad al-Shaybani (they were Abu Hanifah's two most vital understudies too), and Imam al-Shafi’i.
The most special part of Imam Malik's system in fiqh was his dependence on the acts of the populace of Madinah as a wellspring of law. In the investigation of fiqh, various sources are utilized to infer laws. The principal and second most vital sources are dependably the Quran and Sunnah. After those two, nonetheless, the considerable researchers of fiqh contrasted on the following most essential wellspring of law. Imam Malik accepted that the acts of the populace of Madinah ought to be seen as a critical source.
His thinking for this was that Madinah around then was not far expelled from the Madinah of Prophet Muhammad ﷺ. It had been saved the political and social change that a significant part of whatever is left of the Muslim world managed. What's more, the individuals living in the city had been taught Islam by their progenitors who had been Partners of the Prophet ﷺ or understudies of the Allies. He subsequently contemplated that if the majority of the populace of Madinah honed a specific activity and it didn't negate the Quran and Sunnah, then it can be taken as a wellspring of law. He is extraordinary among the four awesome imams of fiqh in this conclusion.
Keeping in mind the end goal to facilitate the investigation of fiqh and hadith, Imam Malik aggregated a book known as the al-Muwatta. This was the first book that endeavored to gather just stable and dependable platitudes of Prophet Muhammad ﷺ into one book. Imam Malik said that he demonstrated his book to seventy researchers in Madinah, who all endorsed it, in this way he gave it the name al-Muwatta, signifying "The Affirmed".
Al-Muwatta was a point of interest book. It helped build up the art of hadith, especially the judging of chains of portrayals for hadith. Imam Malik was so careful in his determination of hadith that it has been set on the same level (and now and again over) the hadith gatherings of Imams Bukhari and Muslim. Imam Shafi'i even expressed that there is no book on earth, after the Quran, that is more real than the Muwatta.
Imam Malik's work was so powerful as a book of fiqh that the caliph of the time, Harun al-Rashid, requested that it be mass-printed and made the official book of fiqh for the Abbasid Domain. Imam Malik, be that as it may, won't. He realized that nobody understanding of Islamic law was immaculate and sweeping. In that capacity, he declined to permit his fiqh to end up official, even under risk of mistreatment and detainment.
Imam Malik's Character 
Other than being one of the best researchers of fiqh ever, Imam Malik was a fantastically modest and careful Muslim. Keeping in mind the Prophet ﷺ and his words, he would decline to portray a hadith while strolling. Rather, when gotten some information about a hadith, he would stop, take a seat, and give the hadith the consideration it merited, keeping in mind Prophet Muhammad ﷺ. He would likewise decline to ride any creature in the city of Madinah, seeing it as unimaginable that he would ride on the same dust that Muhammad ﷺ's feet strolled on. This sort of additional regard and carefulness keeping in mind Prophet Muhammad ﷺ surely is not compulsory as indicated by Islamic law, but rather essentially an indication of the accentuation Imam Malik put on the significance of Muhammad ﷺ.
Among Imam Malik's idioms are:
"The Sunnah is the ark of Nuh. Whoever sheets it is spared, and whoever stays away perishes."
"Information does not comprise in describing much. Learning is however a light which Allah puts in the heart."
"None disavows the world and watchmen himself without then winding up talking shrewdness."
At the point when Imam Malik set out on the investigation of Islamic sciences with an instructor, his mom exhorted him to "gain from your educator his behavior before you gain from him his insight."
Imam Malik's belief system on fiqh formed into the Maliki madhab (school). As Imam Malik wished, it was not forced on Muslims as the sole school of Islamic law. Rather, it supplemented the other three schools that outweighed everything else in the Sunni Muslim world – the Hanafi, Shafi'i, and Hanbali schools. The Maliki school turned out to be exceptionally prevalent in North and West Africa, and additionally Muslim Spain. Today it remains the principle madhab of North and West Africa.
Imam Malik passed on at 85 years old in the year 795. He was covered in the Baqee' Burial ground in Madinah.

Imame Shafi:

In the investigation of fiqh, Islamic statute, diverse schools have grown after some time. These schools were established by the best legitimate personalities in Islamic history, and developed by their successors in their schools. Every one of these imams included an one of a kind and new measurement to the comprehension of Islamic law.

For the third of the four incredible imams, Imam Muhammad al-Shafi'i, his extraordinary commitment was the classifying and association of an idea known as usul al-fiqh – the standards behind the investigation of fiqh. Amid his distinguished vocation, he adapted under a portion of the best researchers of his time, and developed their thoughts, while as yet holding near to the Quran and Sunnah as the fundamental wellsprings of Islamic laws. Today, his madhab (school of believed), is the second most famous on earth, after the madhab of Imam Abu Hanifa.

Early Life

Muhammad ibn Idris al-Shafi'i was conceived in 767 (the year of Imam Abu Hanifa's demise) in Gaza, Palestine. His dad passed on when he was exceptionally youthful, and along these lines his mom chose to move to Makkah, where numerous individuals from her family (who were initially from Yemen) were settled. In spite of being in an awful financial circumstance, his mom demanded that he set out on a way towards grant, particularly considering the way that he was from the group of the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ.

Along these lines, as a young fellow, he was prepared in Arabic sentence structure, writing, and history. Due to his family's money related circumstance, his mom couldn't manage the cost of fitting composition materials for the youthful al-Shafi'i. He was in this manner compelled to take notes in his classes on old creature bones. Regardless of this, he figured out how to remember the Quran at seven years old. Subsequently, he started to inundate himself in the investigation of fiqh, and retained the most well known book of fiqh at the time, Imam Malik's Muwatta, which he remembered by age ten.

Studies Under Imam Malik

At thirteen years old, he was encouraged by the legislative head of Makkah to go to Madinah and study under Imam Malik himself. Imam Malik was exceptionally awed with the insight and explanatory personality of the youthful al-Shafi'i, and gave him monetary help to guarantee that he stays in the investigation of fiqh.

In Madinah, al-Shafi'i was totally inundated in the scholarly environment of the time. Notwithstanding Imam Malik, he concentrated on under Imam Muhammad al-Shaybani, one of Imam Abu Hanifa's chief understudies. This acclimated al-Shafi'i with varying perspectives on the investigation of fiqh, and he extraordinarily profit by the presentation to different ways to deal with fiqh. At the point when Imam Malik kicked the bucket in 795, Imam Shafi'i was known not one of the world's most educated researchers, despite the fact that he was in his 20s.

His Voyages

Not long after Malik's demise, Imam Shafi'i was welcome to Yemen to function as a judge for the Abbasid representative. His stay there would not keep going long be that as it may. The issue was that as a scholastic, Imam Shafi'i was not prepared for the politically-charged environment he ended up in. Since he demanded being uncompromisingly reasonable and fair, various groups inside of the administration made it their expect to expel him from his post.
In 803, he was captured and conveyed in fastens to Baghdad, the seat of the Abbasid Caliphate, on fabricated charges of supporting Shia revolts in Yemen. When he met with the caliph of the time, Harun al-Rashid, Imam Shafi'i gave an energetic and smooth protection, which significantly inspired the caliph. Imam Shafi'i was discharged, as well as Harun al-Rashid even demanded that Imam Shafi'i stay in Baghdad and help spread Islamic learning in the area. Al-Shafi'i concurred and sagaciously chose to stay far from legislative issues for the rest of his life.

While in Iraq, he took the chance to take in more about the Hanafi madhab. He was brought together with his old instructor, Muhammad al-Shaybani, under whom he comprehended the perplexing points of interest of the madhab. In spite of the fact that he never met Imam Abu Hanifa, he had incredible admiration for the originator of the investigation of fiqh, and his school of thought.

All through his 30s and 40s, Imam al-Shafi'i went all through Syria and the Middle Eastern Landmass, giving addresses and gathering a vast gathering of understudies that considered under him. Among them was Imam Ahmad, the originator of the fourth school of fiqh, the Hanbali madhab. In the end, he at long last retreated to Baghdad, yet figured out that the new caliph, al-Ma'mun, held some extremely unconventional convictions about Islam, and was known not the individuals who couldn't help contradicting him. Thus, in 814, Imam Shafi'i made his last move, this time to Egypt, where he found himself able to finish his legitimate conclusions lastly arrange the investigation of usul al-fiqh.


Amid the 700s and the early piece of the 800s, there were two contending methods of insight about how Islamic law ought to be determined. One rationality was advanced by ahl al-hadith, signifying "the populace of Hadith". They demanded outright dependence on the exacting translation of Hadith and the impermissibility of utilizing reason as an intends to infer Islamic law. The other gathering was known as ahl al-ra'i, signifying "the populace of reason". They additionally had faith in utilizing Hadith obviously, however they likewise acknowledged reason as a noteworthy wellspring of law. The Hanafi and Maliki schools of fiqh were basically considered to have been ahl al-ra'i right now.

Al-Risala of Imam Shafi'i

Al-Risala of Imam Shafi'i

Having considered both schools of fiqh, and also having a boundless learning of bona fide hadith, Imam al-Shafi'i looked to accommodate the two rationalities and present a reasonable strategy for fiqh – known as usul al-fiqh. His endeavors towards this end brought about his fundamental work, Al-Risala.
Al-Risala was not intended to be a book that talked about specific legitimate issues and al-Shafi'i's sentiment on them. Nor was it intended to be a book of tenets and Islamic law. Rather, it was intended to give a sensible and judicious approach to determine Islamic law. In it, Imam al-Shafi'i plots four principle sources from which Islamic law can be inferred: 

1. The Quran 

2. The Sunnah of Prophet Muhammad 

3. Agreement among the Muslim group 

4. Analogical conclusion, known as Qiyas 

For every one of these sources (also a few more sources that he esteems not as vital), he goes top to bottom in his Risala, disclosing how they are to be translated and accommodated with one another. The system he accommodates Islamic law turned into the principle rationality of fiqh that was acknowledged by every single consequent researcher of Islamic law. Indeed, even the Hanafi and Maliki schools were adjusted to work inside of the structure that al-Shafi'i gave. 

The commitments of Imam al-Shafi'i in the field of usul al-fiqh were grand. His thoughts kept the fraying of the investigation of fiqh into many distinctive, contending schools by giving a general rationality that ought to be held fast to. In any case, it likewise gave enough adaptability to there to still be distinctive translations, and in this manner madhabs. Despite the fact that he most likely did not mean it, his supporters classified his legitimate sentiments (which were laid out in another book, Kitab al-Umm) after his passing in 820, into the Shafi'i madhab. Today, the Shafi'i madhab is the second biggest madhab after the Hanafi madhab, and is exceptionally mainstream in Egypt, Palestine, Syria, Yemen, East Africa, and Southeast Asia. 

Dialect of Imam Shafi'i 

Other than being a goliath of a researcher in the field of fiqh, Imam Shafi'i was noted for his expert articulation and his insight into the Arabic dialect. Amid his ventures, Bedouins, why should known be the best-versed in the Arabic dialect, would go to his addresses not to pick up learning of fiqh, but rather just to wonder as his utilization of dialect and his authority of verse. One of his friends, Ibn Hisham, noticed that "I never heard him [Imam Shafi'i] utilization something besides a word which, painstakingly thought to be, one would not locate a superior word in the whole Arabic dialect."
Imam Ahmad Ibn Hanbal:
So far in our four section arrangement on the four extraordinary imams of fiqh (Islamic statute), we have seen every one of the imams have an exceptional and continuing part in Islamic history. Imam Abu Hanifa was the trailblazer when it came to systematizing fiqh and setting up the nuts and bolts of how it is to be mulled over. Imam Malik maintained the significance of hadith in the field of fiqh through his milestone accumulation of hadith, al-Muwatta. What's more, Imam al-Shafi'i reformed the investigation of fiqh by building up the field of usul al-fiqh, the standards behind the investigation of fiqh. 

For the remainder of the four awesome imams, Ahmad ibn Hanbal, his commitment went past just fiqh. In spite of the fact that he was one of the best legal advisers and researchers of hadith of his time, maybe his most noteworthy legacy was his boldness to remain for the conventional convictions of Islam as they were bestowed to Prophet Muhammad ﷺ notwithstanding mistreatment and detainment on account of the political power. Hence, Imam Ahmad's legacy is significantly more than simply the foundation of the Hanbali madhab, additionally incorporates the conservation of center Islamic convictions against political mistreatment. 

Early Life 

Ahmad ibn Hanbal al-Shaybani was conceived in 778 in Baghdad, the capital of the Abbasid Caliphate. The generally new city was quick turning into a focal point of grant of all structures. So as a tyke, Ahmad had various chances to learn and grow his scholarly skylines. In this way, when he was 10 years of age, he had remembered the whole Quran and started mulling over the customs of Prophet Muhammad ﷺ, the hadith.
Like Imam Shafi'i, Imam Ahmad lost his dad at an exceptionally youthful age. So notwithstanding investing his energy contemplating fiqh and hadith under some of Baghdad's most prominent researchers, he additionally worked in a mail station to help bolster his crew. He was in this way ready to bear the cost of contemplating under one of Imam Abu Hanifa's principal understudies, Abu Yusuf. From Abu Yusuf, the youthful Ahmad took in the nuts and bolts of fiqh, for example, ijtihad (scholarly choice making), and qiyas (analogical derivation). 

In the wake of getting to be capable in the Hanafi Madhab, Ahmad ibn Hanbal started to study Hadith under a percentage of the best Hadith researchers of Baghdad, including Haitham ibn Bishr. He was so energetic to grow his insight into the expressions and doings of the Prophet ﷺ that he would frequently be holding up after fajr outside of the homes of his educators, prepared to begin that day's lesson. In the wake of mulling over in Baghdad, he went ahead to study in Makkah, Madinah, Yemen, and Syria. Amid this time, he even met Imam al-Shafi'i in Makkah. Al-Shafi'i helped the youthful Ahmad move past only remembrance of hadith and fiqh, and have the capacity to rather additionally comprehend the standards behind them. This coordinated effort between two of the four extraordinary imams plainly demonstrates that the schools of Islamic law are not contradicted to one another, but instead work as an inseparable unit. Actually, when Imam al-Shafi'i left Baghdad, he was recorded as having said, "I am leaving Baghdad when there is none more devout, nor a more prominent law specialist than Ahmad ibn Hanbal." 

Ahmad ibn Hanbal the Researcher 

Subsequent to examining with Imam al-Shafi'i, Imam Ahmad had the capacity start to detail his own particular legitimate suppositions in fiqh. At the point when Imam Ahmad was 40 years old in the year 820, his coach Imam al-Shafi'i passed away. Right now, Imam Ahmad started to show hadith and fiqh to the populace of Baghdad. Understudies would run to his addresses, and he particularly dealt with the poorer ones, remembering his own particular humble birthplaces. 

In spite of being in the capital of the Muslim world, Baghdad, Imam Ahmad declined to be pulled in to an existence of extravagance and riches. He kept on living on exceptionally humble means, and rejected the various blessings that individuals would offer him, rather deciding to live on whatever little measures of cash he had. He particularly demanded not tolerating endowments from political figures, guaranteeing his autonomy from the political power which could influence his teachings. 

The Mihna 

Imam Ahmad was in Baghdad amid the season of the Abbasid Caliph al-Ma'mun, who ruled from 813-833. In spite of the fact that al-Ma'mun was crucial to the foundation of Baghdad as a scholarly focus, he was intensely impacted by a gathering known as the Mu'tazila. Mu'tazili reasoning championed the part of logic in all parts of life, including philosophy. In this manner, as opposed to depending on the Quran and Sunnah to comprehend God, they depended on philosophical systems initially grew by the Antiquated Greeks. Boss among their convictions was that the Quran was a made book, rather than the un-made strict expression of Allah. 

Al-Ma'mun trusted in the Mu'tazili line of thought, and looked to force this new and unsafe conviction framework on everybody in his domain – including the researchers. While numerous researchers professed to subscribe to Mu'tazili thoughts with a specific end goal to keep away from mistreatment, Imam Ahmad declined to trade off his conviction.
Al-Ma'mun initiated an investigation known as the Mihna. Any researchers who declined to acknowledge Mu'tazili thoughts was seriously oppressed and rebuffed. Imam Ahmad, as the most popular researcher of Baghdad, was brought before al-Ma'mun and requested to surrender his conventional Islamic convictions about religious philosophy. When he cannot, he was tormented and detained. His treatment because of the political power was to a great degree extreme. Individuals who saw the torment remarked that even an elephant couldn't have taken care of the treatment that Imam Ahmad was liable to. 

Notwithstanding the greater part of this, Imam Ahmad held to conventional Islamic convictions, and consequently served as a motivation for Muslims all through the realm. His trials set the point of reference that Muslims don't surrender their convictions in any case what the political power forces on them. At last, Imam Ahmad outlasted al-Ma'mun and his successors until the Caliph al-Mutawakkil rose in 847 and finished the Mihna. Imam Ahmad was again allowed to show the populace of Baghdad and compose. Amid this time, he composed his popular Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal, an accumulation of hadith that served as the premise of his school of lawful thought, the Hanbali Madhab. 

Imam Ahmad passed away in Baghdad in 855. His legacy was not confined to the school of fiqh that he established, nor the immense measure of hadith he aggregated. Dissimilar to the next three imams, he had a crucial part in saving the holiness of Islamic convictions notwithstanding serious political mistreatment. Despite the fact that the Hanbali Madhab has generally been the littlest of the four, various extraordinary Muslim researchers all through history were extraordinarily affected by Imam Ahmad and his contemplations, including Abdul Qadir al-Gilani, Ibn Taymiyyah, Ibn al-Qayyim, Ibn Kathir, and Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab.
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